- Research article
- Open Access
Interrelation between Tween and the membrane properties and high pressure tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum
© The Author(s). 2018
- Received: 5 December 2017
- Accepted: 14 June 2018
- Published: 13 July 2018
Tween® 80 is a frequently used supplement of media for the cultivation of lactic acid bacteria. We investigated its effect on the cell physiology and stress tolerance of Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum. Data on the transcriptomic response to Tween 80 supplementation and its effects on cellular fatty acid profiles and growth characteristics are compared with data characterizing the effect of Tween 80, other Tween types and free fatty acids on the high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) tolerance of L. plantarum strain TMW 1.708. These include effects on cell viability, sub-lethal injury, metabolic activity, protein release and propidium iodide uptake. Tween 80 caused the downregulation of fatty acid biosynthesis and an increase in oleic acid and cyclopropane fatty acid levels in the cell membrane. Tween 20, Tween 80 and free oleic acid, but not Tween 40, Tween 60 and other free fatty acids, conferred resistance against HHP. Tween 80 diminished pressure-induced loss of metabolic activity, protein release and uptake of propidium iodide. However, loss of cell viability exceeded by far membrane permeabilization, suggesting that membrane permeabilization, which has frequently been postulated as a major factor in HHP inactivation of microbes, is not necessarily required for HHP-induced cell death of Lactobacillus plantarum.
- High hydrostatic pressure inactivation
- Polysorbate 80
- Food additive E 433
- Lactobacillus plantarum
- Food spoilage
- Cytoplasmic membrane
- Fatty acids
- Oleic acid
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate, frequently referred to as polysorbate 80 or its registered trade name, Tween® 80, is a non-ionic surfactant and emulsifier often used in foods (EU food additive number E 433), cosmetics and medications for parenteral administration. Furthermore, Tween 80 is widely used as an additive in microbiological growth media, providing bacterial cells (e.g. from Lactobacillus species) with exogenous oleic acid , which constitutes the lipophilic group of Tween 80. Additionally, oleic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in many plant and animal fats and is therefore present in a variety of food products.
Consequentially, bacterial cells from food-associated species are likely to get in contact either with Tween 80 itself or its fatty acid group during enrichment in cultivation medium or in an actual food product. A prominent example for food-associated bacterial species is Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum, which is widely used in food and feed fermentations, has been claimed to have probiotic traits, but has also been associated with food spoilage [2–4].
Various effects of Tween 80 on vegetative cells have been described. It can enhance growth of lactobacilli [5–8] and protect cells against adverse environmental conditions, including acidity [9, 10], bile salts , freeze-drying  and nutrient depletion . These effects are potentially related to the fact that the oleic acid moiety of Tween 80 can be incorporated into the cell membrane, which affects cell membrane properties [6, 7, 9]. Furthermore, it was shown that exogenous fatty acids can be directly incorporated into the cells, and that oleic acid supplementation represses fatty acid synthesis in L. plantarum, where reduced production of responsible enzymes could play a role [14, 15]. However, the exact physiological mechanism underlying growth enhancement and stress protection by Tween 80 is not yet completely clear.
Additionally, there is a large gap of knowledge regarding possible effects of Tween 80 or fatty acids on the resistance of vegetative cells to novel food preservation technologies. These include high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing, which has the potential to inactivate vegetative microorganisms while retaining valuable food attributes, such as flavors, texture, colors and vitamins.
Previously obtained data from our group shows that the presence of fat per se during HHP treatment does not protect L. plantarum cells against HHP-mediated inactivation . However, it is known that many food environments can protect microorganisms from efficient HHP inactivation, and the effect of pre-conditioning in fat- or fatty acid-containing environments before HHP treatments has not been investigated so far. In this context even more importantly, HHP appears to be a suitable physical parameter to probe the impact of cell membrane composition on the structure and function of bacterial cell membranes as determined by their growth and survival.
Results from several studies imply that the cytoplasmic membrane is one of the main cellular target structures for HHP inactivation of vegetative cells, i.e. that (i) the membrane undergoes phase transition from the liquid-crystalline to the gel phase accompanied by permeabilization [17, 18], (ii) the function of membrane-bound enzymes is impaired by pressure-induced phase transition , (iii) membrane properties, including fluidity, phase transition temperature and fatty acid composition strongly influence the sensitivity of bacteria to HHP treatments [19, 20], and (iv) barophilic bacteria adjust the fatty acid composition of their membranes according to growth pressure in order to maintain proper fluidity and functionality . Together with the fact that cultivation in the presence of Tween 80 can alter membrane composition, it can be hypothesized that Tween 80 can directly influence HHP sensitivity.
A better understanding of the mechanisms of the cellular response of lactobacilli to Tween 80 could enable a more efficient use of this substance as well as a more target-oriented study design and development of growth and fermentation conditions. On the other hand, a deeper knowledge of the processes causing stress resistance would facilitate the development of strategies to avoid or reduce the stress-protecting effect of Tween 80 or oleic acid, thus increasing the efficiency of HHP as food preservation method.
Thus, we aimed to gain deeper insight into the mechanism underlying the growth-enhancing and protective effect of Tween 80 on lactobacilli. For this purpose, we tested whether there exists a link between the supplementation of the growth medium with Tween 80, the membrane fatty acid composition and the high pressure sensitivity of L. plantarum. This was done by (i) the determination of the transcriptomic response and changes in the membrane fatty acid profiles upon cultivation in the presence of Tween 80 and (ii) the assessment of the effect of Tween 80 on cell viability, sub-lethal injury, metabolic activity and membrane damage after HHP treatments.
Bacteria and culture conditions
Lactobacillus plantarum strain TMW 1.708 was stored at − 80 °C in a 1:1 mixture of 80% glycerol and modified MRS (mMRS) medium (10 g L− 1 peptone from casein, 5 g L− 1 meat extract, 5 g L− 1 yeast extract, 4 g L− 1 KH2PO4, 2.6 g L− 1 K2HPO4 * 3 H2O, 3 g L− 1 NH4Cl, 0.5 g L− 1 cystein-HCl, 1 g L− 1 Tween 80, 7.5 g L− 1 glucose, 7.5 g L− 1 fructose, 0.1 g L− 1 MgSO4 * 7 H2O, 0.05 g L− 1 MnSO4 * 4 H2O, pH 6.2) . Glucose and fructose were autoclaved separately. A 1000 × stock solution of MgSO4 * 7 H2O and MnSO4 * 4 H2O was filter-sterilized (0.2 μm pore size, Sarstedt, Nürnbrecht, Germany). Both solutions were added to the medium after autoclaving. For activation of the strain, a loopful of the cryo culture was transferred to mMRS medium from which Tween 80 was omitted (mMRS-). The culture was incubated at 30 °C overnight. The overnight culture was used as inoculum in the experiments.
mMRS medium containing different tween types
Lactobacillus plantarum was either grown in mMRS- or in mMRS containing 1 g L− 1 Tween 20 (mMRST20), Tween 40 (mMRST40), Tween 60 (mMRST60) or Tween 80 (mMRST80). All Tween types were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). The different Tween types were solubilized in mMRS- at a concentration of 10 g L− 1, filter-sterilized (0.2 μm pore size, Sarstedt, Nürnbrecht, Germany), and finally added to mMRS- to give a concentration of 1 g L− 1.
mMRS medium containing free fatty acids
Free fatty acids, i.e. stearic acid (Merck Schuchard, Hohenbrunn, Germany), oleic acid (Merck Darmstadt, Germany), linoleic acid (Sigma, Steinheim, Germany), linolenic acid (Sigma, Steinheim Germany), palmitic acid (Merck Schuchard, Hohenbrunn, Germany), palmitoleic acid (Fluka Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA), myristic acid (Merck Schuchard, Hohenbrunn, Germany), or lauric acid (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) were solubilized in 95% ethanol to give a concentration of 50 mM. Either one of these stock solutions was added 1:1000 to mMRS- to obtain a final fatty acid concentration of 50 μM.
In order to investigate the effect of Tween 80 on the metabolism of L. plantarum TMW 1.708, the transcriptomic response to medium supplementation with Tween 80 was assessed. For this, sterile mMRS- was inoculated (1% (v/v)) with an overnight culture of TMW 1.708 and incubated at 30 °C for 24 h. Another 9 mL mMRS- were inoculated with 1% (v/v) of this 24 h culture and grown at 30 °C for 4 h, followed by the addition of 1 mL of either mMRS- or mMRS containing 10 g L− 1 Tween 80. Transcription was stopped after 0.5 h incubation at 30 °C by the addition of RNAprotect Bacteria Reagent (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) to the culture. Thereafter, mRNA was isolated and purified using the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Final RNA concentration was determined via light absorption spectrometry using a NanoDrop™ device (Wilmington, DE, USA). Samples were then sent to GATC Biotech (Constance, Germany) for RNA sequencing. Sequencing data were analyzed using Rockhopper software on the basis of the genome of L. plantarum TMW 1.708 (Biosample: SAMN05805046 ) [24, 25]. Genes with corrected p-values lower than 0.05 were considered to show significantly different expression levels. The 2.5% quantiles with the greatest increase and decrease in expression level were considered for further investigation.
Examination of growth parameters
In order to evaluate the effect of Tween 80 on characteristic growth parameters of L. plantarum TMW 1.708 growth curves were recorded by OD600 measurement. In addition to Tween 80, three additional Tween types were included in the study, namely Tween 20, Tween 40 and Tween 60, which are characterized by lauric acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid as their specific fatty acid moiety, respectively. For this, mMRS-, mMRST20, mMRST40, mMRST60 and mMRST80 were inoculated (1% (v/v)) with a 24 h culture of TMW 1.708 in mMRS-. An aliquot of each inoculated medium (150 μL per well) was then transferred to a 96-well plate (sterile, transparent, F-bottom, Sarstedt, Nürnbrecht, Germany). Each well was covered with 50 μL sterile paraffin oil to avoid evaporation. The plate was incubated at 30 °C in a FLUOStar Omega plate reader (BMG Labtech, Ortenberg, Germany) for 30 h. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was measured every 30 min following agitation with 200 rpm for 30 s.
Determination of membrane fatty acid composition
For the determination of cellular fatty acid profiles, sterile mMRS- was inoculated with 1% (v/v) of an overnight culture of TMW 1.708 and incubated at 30 °C for 24 h. Fresh mMRS- or mMRST20/40/60/80 was inoculated (1% (v/v)) with the 24 h culture and incubated at 30 °C for another 24 h to give a cell density of approximately 109 colony forming units (cfu) mL− 1. Cells were harvested by centrifugation (5000×g, 25 °C, 5 min), washed three times in ¼-strength Ringer’s solution and finally freeze-dried using a FreeZone Plus 2.5 L freeze dry system (Labonco, Kansas City, MO, USA). The lyophilisate was stored under N2 atmosphere. Fatty acid analyses were carried out by the Identification Service of the DSMZ (Braunschweig, Germany).
For HHP treatments, cells grown in the respective medium at 30 °C for 24 h were centrifuged (5.000×g, 25 °C, 5 min), washed once in imidazole/phosphate buffer (IPB, 0.1 g L− 1 KH2PO4, 4.45 g L− 1 NA2HPO4 * 2 H2O, 1.7 g L− 1 imidazole, pH 7.0) and, finally, resuspended in IPB to give 107 –108 cfu mL− 1 for inactivation experiments, and 108 –109 cfu mL− 1 for experiments examining metabolic activity, protein release and membrane permeability to ensure a sufficient signal strength during measurements. An aliquot of 600 μL of the cell suspension was transferred to cryovails (0.5 mL Nunc CryoTube™ Vials, internal thread, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). Care was taken to avoid the inclusion of air bubbles. Samples were pressurized in two parallel linked 7 mL pressure vessels equipped with thermostating jackets (high pressure unit TMW-RB, described earlier [26, 27]). A mixture of 70% polyethylene glycol 400 (Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany) and 30% deionized water was used as pressure-transmitting fluid. Vessel temperature was held constant at 25 °C (FC 600; JULABO, Seelbach, Germany). Prior to starting the pressure ramp, samples were incubated for 5 min in the pressure vessel to reach the desired starting temperature. Compression and decompression rates were kept constant at 200 MPa min− 1. Target pressure/holding time combinations were chosen upon their capability of inactivating a significant portion of L. plantarum cells within a population and are indicated individually for each experiment in the results section.
Effect of HHP on cell viability
Pressurized and unpressurized control samples were diluted in isotonic tryptone solution supplemented with Antifoam B (145 mM NaCl, 14 g L− 1 tryptone, 0.01% (v/v) Antifoam B Emulsion). Serial dilutions were spread-plated on mMRS supplemented with 15 g L− 1 agar using glass beads. For the determination of sub-lethal injury, the agar was supplemented with 7% NaCl (w/v), and the maximum non-inhibitory concentration according to literature  was determined for L. plantarum TMW 1.708 in a separate experiment (data not shown). The plates were incubated for 72 h at 30 °C to allow for cell recovery and colony formation. High pressure inactivation experiments were performed at least in independent triplicate.
Effect of HHP on metabolic activity
To determine the metabolic activity after HHP treatment, a stock solution (70 mM) of resazurin-Na salt (Serva, Heidelberg, Germany) in IPB was prepared, diluted to 1 μM in IPB containing 15 g L− 1 glucose and 15 g L− 1 fructose, and filter-sterilized (0.2 μm, Sarstedt, Nürnbrecht, Germany), giving the resazurin working solution used. To measure metabolic activity, 100 μL resazurin working solution were mixed with 100 μL pressure-treated or untreated cell suspension on white 96-well microtiter plates (F-bottom, Nunc, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA), and fluorescence intensity (ex/em: 544/590 nm) was measured during incubation at 30 °C in an Omega FLUOStar microplate reader (BMG Labtech, Ortenberg, Germany) every 120 s for a period of 30 min. The assay is based on the fact that the blue dye resazurin is reduced by cellular enzymes to red fluorescent resorufin. The reaction runs faster the more metabolically active cells are present in a sample, so that the metabolic activity can be determined from the slope of fluorescence increase. The increase in fluorescence intensity over time expressed as percent of the value of untreated cells was used to estimate HHP-induced changes in the metabolic activity of L. plantarum cells.
Effect of HHP on protein release
For the determination of protein release upon high pressure treatment, an aliquot of 500 μL of a pressure-treated sample (108–109 cfu mL− 1) was transferred to a sterile reaction tube and centrifuged (2800×g, 5 °C, 15 min). The supernatant was filter-sterilized (0,2 μM pore size, Sarstedt, Nürnbrecht, Germany) and protein concentration was measured on black 96-well microtiter plates (F-bottom, Greiner bio-one, Frickenhausen, Germany) using the Pierce™ Coomassie Plus (Bradford) assay kit (ThermoFisher, Waltham, MA, USA) according to the micro MTP protocol provided by the manufacturer. The samples were incubated at 25 °C in the dark for 10 min and absorbance at 595 nm was measured in a FLUOStar Omega plate reader (BMG LABTECH GmbH, Ortenberg, Germany). Bovine serum albumin provided with the kit was used to establish a standard curve for protein concentrations between 0 and 25 μg mL− 1.
Effect of HHP on membrane permeability
Membrane permeability was determined using propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence, as described earlier . For the determination of transient membrane permeability, cell suspensions (108–109 cfu mL− 1) in IPB were mixed with PI (Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) to a final concentration of 3 μM before HHP treatment. After pressure release, samples were washed twice in IPB (10,000×g, 5 min, 25 °C) and finally resuspended in twice the original volume of IPB. Permanent membrane permeability was determined by PI staining immediately after HHP treatment followed by incubation for at least 15 min in the dark and subsequent purification as described above. Suspensions of untreated and heat-inactivated (100 °C, 15 min) cells were mixed with PI in parallel to the pressure-treated samples and were used as negative and positive controls, representing populations without membrane damage and thus minimum fluorescence intensity or with completely destroyed membranes leading to the maximum achievable fluorescence signal, respectively. Membrane permeability was determined via the measurement of the fluorescence intensity (excitation/emission: 485/620 nm) on black 96-well plates (F-bottom, Greiner bio-one, Frickenhausen, Germany) using a FLUOStar Omega microplate reader (BMG Labtech, Ortenberg, Germany). For normalization purposes, OD600 was measured in parallel (U-bottom, non-sterile, Sarstedt, Nürnbrecht, Germany). For microscopic analysis, samples were treated as explained above with the exception that staining was performed using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) containing SYTO®9 and PI. The final concentration of each dye in the sample was 3 μM. An aliquot of 5 μL stained sample was spread on a glass microscope slide (Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany), covered with a coverslip and examined under an Axiostar plus microscope (Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Jena, Germany) equipped with an epifluorescence unit. Stained cells were visualized using epifluorescence light with the appropriate filters (SYTO®9: Excitation BP 475/40, Emission BP 530/50; Propidium Iodide: Excitation BP 546/12, Emission LP 590). In all cases, a 100× objective was used, giving a total magnification of 1000-fold. Images were captured with a 1.388 × 1.038 pixel RGB camera (AxioCam ICc1) and processed with AxioVS40 V 184.108.40.206 software (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Jena, Germany).
To determine the significance of the differences between measured values, a Student’s t-test was used for the comparison of two and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the comparison of more values. Where ANOVA values were significant, ANOVA analyses were followed by a post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test for paired comparison. Statistical analyses were performed using the software Sigmaplot. Results were considered significantly different when p-values were < 0.05.
Additional file 1: Table S1 provides an overview of the lower (A) and upper (B) 2.5% quantiles of genes for which significant changes in their expression levels were detected in response to medium supplementation with Tween 80. By far the most pronounced effect was observed with central components of the fatty acid synthesis pathway, which were strongly downregulated upon the addition of Tween 80 (Additional file 1: Table S1a). Moreover, genes responsible for the transmembrane transport of oligopeptides (oppC) and potassium (kup1/2) as well as gadB glutamate decarboxylase, which catalyzes the formation of 4-aminobutanoate and CO2 from glutamate, were downregulated in mMRST80. In contrast, the expression of genes implicated in lysine uptake (lysP) and the uptake (glnQ3, glnPH2) and synthesis (glnA) of glutamine was enhanced upon the addition of Tween 80. Upregulation was observed also for genes involved in manganese (mntH3, predicted protein) and phosphate (pstB1) uptake, transmembrane diffusion of uncharged solutes such as glycerol, urea and lactic acid (glpF4), ingestion of N-acetylglucosamine (pts18CBA) as well as pyrimidine metabolism. The latter include (i) a predicted transmembrane permease for uracil uptake, pyrP , (ii) orothate phosphoribosyltransferase pyrE, which is involved in the formation of uridine monophosphate (UMP) from orothate , (iii) pyrG coding for cytidine triphosphate (CTP) synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of CTP and glutamate from uridine triphosphate (UTP) and glutamine, and (iv) the transcriptional regulator of the biosynthetic pyrimidine pyrR1-B-C-Aa1-Ab1-D-F-E operon, pyrR1 . This points towards increased metabolic activity in the presence of Tween 80. Furthermore, two genes for predicted N-acetyltransferases, part of the cps4 gene cluster including genes with predicted glycosyltransferase (cps4G, cps4I) polysaccharide polymerase (csp4H) and flippase (csp4J) function, and a predicted mannose-specific adhesin (msa) were upregulated upon Tween 80 supplementation.
Effect of Tween on growth parameters
Cellular fatty acid profile
In cells grown in mMRS-, palmitic (16:0), cis-vaccenic (18:1 ω7cis), stearic (18:0) and lactobacillic acid (19:0 cyclo ω8cis) accounted for > 95% of the total FA content. The addition of Tween 40 and Tween 60 caused a slight increase in the proportions of the exogenous FA palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18,0) acid, respectively, compared to mMRS-.
In contrast, Tween 80 led to substantial amounts of oleic (18:1 ω9cis) and dihydrosterculic (19:0 cyclo ω10cis) acid at the expense of cis-vaccenic, lactobacillic acid and the SFA, palmitic and stearic acid, which was completely eliminated. Tween 20 caused a fatty acid profile similar to Tween 80 and only marginal levels of its specific fatty acid moiety, lauric acid, were detected.
The comparison of the abundance of fatty acid types (Fig. 2b) indicates that Tween 20 and Tween 80 cause a strong overall increase in CFA at the expense of SFA, while UFA levels remained almost constant. Tween 40 and Tween 60 supplementation led to a slight increase in SFA abundance and decreased UFA levels.
Effect of Tween on HHP inactivation
Effect of Tween 80 on HHP-induced sub-lethal injury
Effect of Tween 80 on metabolic activity
Effect of Tween 80 on membrane permeabilization under high pressure
High pressure-induced protein release
High pressure-induced uptake of fluorescent dyes
Cells grown in mMRS- exhibited lower permanent than transient membrane permeability, showing that a substantial fraction of cells was able to reseal their membranes after pressure release. Growth in mMRST80 led to similar levels of permanent and transient membrane permeability, which indicates that all the HHP-induced membrane damage in these cells was permanent, though generally lower than in cells grown in the absence of Tween 80.
Heat treatment of a cell suspension used in this experiment (108–109 cfu mL− 1) at 100 °C for 15 min resulted in no detectable cell growth (data not shown). Taking the detection limit into account, this result means a reduction by at least 6 log, i.e. > 99.9999% of cells unable to recover. HHP treatment at 500 MPa for 5 min led to a reduction in viable cell count by > 5 log cycles (see Fig. 5), meaning that > 99.999% of cells were unable to recover. Since the difference between the fluorescence signals of a sample containing 99.999% and one with 99.9999% fluorescing cells is far below the detection range of the PI assay, similar fluorescence signals of samples treated with HHP (500 MPa, 5 min) and heat (100 °C, 15 min) should have been detected, if all pressure-treated cells unable to recover had permeable cell membranes. However, even with HHP conditions leading to (nearly) complete inactivation (500 MPa) PI fluorescence intensities remained lower than 50% of the maximum achievable signal (heat inactivated positive control), showing that HHP treated cells that lost the ability to recover were still able to partially retain membrane integrity.
Microscopic analysis of PI fluorescence confirmed the results presented above, showing that the whole population of heat-inactivated cells, but only a small fraction of cells pressure-treated at 500 MPa had accumulated PI, although (nearly) the entire pressure-treated population (> 99.999%) had lost the ability to recover (see Fig. 5). In contrast, all cells took up green-fluorescent SYTO®9, which can penetrate both damaged and intact membranes (Additional file 4: Figure S1, Additional file 5: Figure S2, Additional file 6: Figure S3 and Additional file 7: Figure S4). This demonstrates that differences in the PI signal resulted from different numbers of fluorescing cells rather than different fluorescence intensity of the single cells.
We assessed the transcriptomic response of L. plantarum strain TMW 1.708 to growth medium supplementation with Tween 80 and observed a significant downregulation of genes involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. This corroborates a study on L. casei  that reported the downregulation of fatty acid synthesis genes in the presence of Tween 80, and reflects the reduced need for fatty acid synthesis due to exogenously available oleic acid. The observed downregulation of potassium uptake channels may be explained by the fact that Tween 80 is capable of binding small ions and transporting them through membranes , whereas the downregulation of oligopeptide transporter gene oppC might result from reduced need for peptide uptake due to the availability of Tween 80 as a carbon source and the concomitant upregulation of amino acid-specific transporters for glutamine (glnPH2, glnQ3) and lysine (lysP) as well as transmembrane transport systems for uncharged ions (glpF4) and N-acetylglucosamine (pts18CBA). The upregulation of genes involved in the uptake and biosynthesis of pyrimidines and related nucleotides indicates an increased need for nucleic acid components, which may be associated with the growth enhancement by Tween 80 that was observed in this and other studies [6, 34, 35]. At first glance, the upregulation of the transcription repressor of the pyr operon, pyrR1, seems contradictory in this context. However, pyrR1 only represses transcription in case of high UMP-to-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate ratios and, furthermore, possesses minor uracil phosphoribosyltransferase activity, converting uracil and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate to uridine monophosphate (UMP) . In particular, the enhanced activity of the pyrE gene, which is involved in the formation of UMP from orothate , suggests increased UMP production in the presence of Tween 80. The upregulation of pyrG/CTP synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of CTP from UTP by utilizing glutamine, enhances the production of CTP. The upregulation of genes coding for a glutamine ABC transporter (glnQ3, glnPH2) and glutamine synthetase (glnA) potentially serves to provide the substrate for CTP synthase. The observed downregulation of glutamate decarboxylase gadB, in turn, might serve to ensure sufficient amounts of glutamate, the substrate of glnA. The upregulation of genes with predicted N-acetyltransferase function, members of the csp4 gene cluster and a predicted mannose-specific adhesion point towards changes in cell surface characteristics the effect of which is currently unclear .
In summary, these observations indicate that exogenous oleic acid provided by Tween 80 reduces the need for fatty acid synthesis. Potentially, it is the accompanying energy and material savings that allow for enhanced cell growth, which manifests in the upregulation of genes involved in the synthesis of amino pyrimidine nucleotides needed for de novo assembly of nucleic acids.
In accordance with previous studies, we found that Tween 80 supplementation indeed increases the cellular proportions of oleic acid [6, 9, 12]. Early studies reported the direct incorporation of exogenous FA into cellular lipids of L. plantarum [14, 15]. In this context, the nature of the supplied FA appears to be particularly important, since mono-UFA, but not SFA, reduce de novo FA synthesis and enhance growth of lactobacilli [6, 14, 15]. In line with this and in accordance with the results from another study, we found that Tween 80 and Tween 20, but not Tween 40 and Tween 60, are able to enhance growth . The growth-enhancing effect of Tween 80 and Tween 20, which besides lauric acid can contain notable amounts of oleic acid [6, 12], is probably based on the substitution of endogenous cis-vaccenic acid by oleic acid, which only differs in the position of the C-C double bond. We observed this phenomenon by analyzing the cellular fatty acid profiles of L. plantarum cells after medium supplementation with different Tween types. Tween 20 and Tween 80 also led to increased total CFA levels at the expense of SFA with the complete elimination of stearic acid. CFA are produced at the onset of stationary phase by CFA synthase, which converts cis-vaccenic and oleic acid into lactobacillic and dihydrosterculic acid, respectively [37, 38]. The substitution of cis-vaccenic acid by oleic acid changes the substrate of CFA synthase. This explains the observed increase in dihydrosterculic acid abundance with concomitantly decreased lactobacillic acid levels.
In contrast, the uptake of lauric acid provided as exogenous SFA in the form of Tween 20, palmitic acid (Tween 40) or stearic acid (Tween 60), was less pronounced, which is in line with results reported previously [14, 15]. However, the reason why exogenous oleic acid, but not SFA enhance growth still needs to be further elucidated.
Since the cell membrane is a target for HHP-mediated inactivation of vegetative cells, and membrane properties have been shown to affect HHP sensitivity of L. plantarum , we hypothesized that a medium supplementation with different Tween types causing specific alterations in FA profiles can influence HHP sensitivity. Indeed, we found that supplementation with Tween 20, Tween 80, but not Tween 40 or Tween 60, increases the resistance of L. plantarum cells to HHP. We further hypothesized that the protective effect of Tween 20 and Tween 80 results from the respective FA coupled to the polyoxyethylene backbone of Tween. To prove this, we examined the HHP sensitivity of TMW 1.708 after growth in mMRS medium supplemented with different free FA and found that only oleic acid and polyunsaturated C18 FA, linoleic and linolenic acid, reduce HHP sensitivity. This shows that the fatty acid part of Tween rather than its hydrophilic poly-oxyethylenesorbitan moiety is responsible for changes in HHP sensitivity. The protective effect of Tween 20 potentially results from traces of oleic acid , since other free fatty acids, including lauric acid, did not confer HHP resistance and the fatty acid profile after growth in Tween 20 closely resembled that obtained with Tween 80. Furthermore, we found a correlation between the fatty acid profile and HHP sensitivity, with the characteristic profiles obtained after supplementation with Tween 20 and Tween 80 leading to increased HHP resistance compared to the other conditions. This strongly indicates that HHP sensitivity depends on the fatty acid composition of the cell membrane, which is well-known as a target structure for HHP.
The slightly protective effect observed with the polyunsaturated C18 FA, linoleic and linolenic acid, possibly results from conversion into oleic acid by saturation. According to the available genome data, L. plantarum TMW 1.708 possesses the four genes required for this process  and there is no evidence for poly-UFA to protect bacteria from HHP inactivation. In contrast, they have been reported to even inhibit the growth of lactobacilli .
In order to gain deeper insight into the mechanism underlying the protective effect of Tween 80 against HHP inactivation, we determined the amount of sub-lethal injury by plating pressure-treated TMW 1.708 cells on normal mMRS agar and in parallel on mMRS agar supplemented with the maximum non-inhibitory NaCl concentration. The determination of survival on non-selective agar revealed a strongly protective effect of Tween 80 against inactivation at 400 and 450 MPa. At these pressure levels, the whole surviving population was sub-lethally injured, as detected by plate counts on selective agar, where only undamaged cells can grow. Hence, the differences in inactivation between cells grown in mMRS- and mMRST80 are based on the extent of injury, i.e. whether the damage, which all cells have experienced, is sub-lethal or lethal.
While the plate count method detects cells able to grow and form colonies, some non-dividing cells may still be alive. In order to detect these viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) cells, we assessed the metabolic activity after HHP treatment using the resazurin reduction assay and found that, despite a substantial inactivation of around two log cycles (i.e. ca. 1% of cells were able to grow out) on non-selective agar after exposure to 400 MPa, cells retained more than 60% of their initial metabolic activity. The discrepancy was even larger at higher pressure levels, where colony counts below (mMRS-) or near (mMRST80) the detection limit (around 6 log cycles) were accompanied by a metabolic activity of around 40% or 60%, respectively. This demonstrates that, after HHP treatment, a large portion of cells is still viable but not culturable under the conditions offered. The fact that the viable fraction was even larger in cell populations grown in the presence of Tween 80 indicates that Tween 80 protects the functionality of crucial redox enzymes. The exact mechanism and, whether the characteristic cellular fatty acid profile plays a role in this context, is still to be elucidated.
High pressure has been shown to damage the bacterial cell membrane, causing increased permeability that manifests in a loss of intracellular material and uptake of extracellular substances [29, 41]. While pressure-induced inactivation of E. coli is closely related to membrane permeability [29, 42], the role of membrane damage is not yet clear in gram-positive bacteria [43–45]. However, the fact that (i) HHP can cause alterations in the phase state and permeabilization of biological membranes, (ii) membrane properties have been shown to strongly influence the pressure-induced inactivation of membrane-bound enzymes, which is critical for the survival of L. plantarum under HHP [19, 41], and (iii) the a correlation was observed between fatty acid composition and HHP sensitivity supported our hypothesis that the cell membrane plays a key role in Tween 80-mediated HHP resistance. We therefore determined pressure-induced membrane damage via measuring the HHP-mediated release of protein and uptake of propidium iodide (PI). Our results show that growth in the presence of Tween 80 reduces protein release from untreated cells, indicating lower membrane permeability in general, and substantially diminishes pressure-induced protein release, pointing towards increased pressure-stability of the membrane. The amount of released protein increased only up to a specific pressure level (400 MPa), whereas higher pressures and heat treatment caused lower protein release. A similar effect was observed in studies on E. coli [29, 42], and it was speculated whether it results from (i) the formation of intracellular aggregates of denatured proteins, which are unable to penetrate the peptidoglycan network, and/or (ii) structural changes of the cell envelope, which prevent proteins from escaping the cell [29, 46].
Despite their inability to grow on non-selective agar, only a minor fraction of cells treated at pressure levels of 400 MPa or higher exhibited membranes permeable to PI. These results, which are in line with previous studies on lactobacilli [41, 43, 44], and the fact that HHP impaired metabolic activity much more than membrane integrity, leads to the conclusion that membrane permeabilization per se is not the main cause for pressure-induced inactivation of L. plantarum. Moreover, neither metabolic activity nor membrane integrity was impaired to an extent that would explain the great loss of viability detected on non-selective agar. A possible explanation might be found in the data of Govers et al. who showed in E. coli that HHP-induced disassembly of aggregates of misfolded proteins impedes resuscitation until these proteins are re-assembled to proper inclusion bodies, although the cells are viable and metabolically active . Possibly, the L. plantarum cells used here behaved in a similar manner, with many cells with intact membranes and active metabolism being unable to resume proliferation because they failed to reassemble their protein aggregates.
Even though the HHP-induced loss of membrane integrity does not account for the observed failure to grow on non-selective agar, the reduced basic and pressure-induced membrane permeability in cells grown in the presence of Tween 80 compared to mMRS- cannot be denied. Furthermore, the question remains, how Tween 80, and possibly the associated fatty acid profile, confer pressure resistance.
Both the increased survival rate and the reduced membrane permeability of cells grown in the presence of Tween 80 might be the result of the elevated CFA content of these cells. Like most other bacteria, lactobacilli use CFA synthase to convert monounsaturated fatty acids into the corresponding CFA from the beginning of stationary growth phase on [38, 48]. Furthermore, CFA have been linked to the resistance of lactobacilli to various stress factors, including high acidity [10, 49], bile acids , cold stress  and high metabolite concentrations in stationary growth phase [48, 52]. Moreover, CFA have been shown to confer high pressure resistance to E. coli, and CFA synthase knockout mutants of E. coli showed stronger membrane permeabilization and loss of viability under HHP than their wild type counterparts [42, 53].
According to a recent study , cis-CFA, such as lactobacillic and dihydrosterculic acids, have a dual effect on membrane properties: on the one hand, they increase overall fluidity and diffusion compared to SFA and UFA. This leads to a shift of the phase transition from liquid-crystalline to gel phase towards higher pressure levels. Thus, important membrane-bound enzymes are protected and membrane functionality is ensured up to higher pressure levels, resulting in higher survival rates, as observed after growth in the presence of Tween 80. On the other hand, CFA show a higher degree of order within the acyl chain than the analogous UFA. The higher rigidity of the hydrocarbon chains results in reduced permeability to small molecules, such as many toxic compounds and dyes like PI. This could explain the reduced permeability to PI in cells grown in the presence of Tween 80.
Furthermore, CFA might increase cell viability because they are inert to oxidation by reactive oxygen species produced under high pressure. Methylenation of unsaturated FA (i.e. formation of CFA) has been hypothesized to improve resistance to superoxide, singlet oxygen, ozonolysis and oxidative stress in general .
Transcriptomic analysis suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of Tween 80 is based primarily on energy and resource savings due to the downregulation of de novo fatty acid synthesis. While the effect of Tween 80 on membrane fatty acid composition of lactobacilli and the importance of the membrane for HHP tolerance have been described earlier, we could, for the first time, directly link Tween 80 and free oleic acid to increased HHP tolerance. Our results further show that Tween 80 diminishes the pressure-induced loss of metabolic activity, protein release and membrane permeabilization whereas membrane damage is not a prerequisite for loss viability or metabolic activity.
The authors furthermore thank Jürgen Behr and Andreas Geißler (both Technische Universität München, Germany) for their support in bioinformatics analysis of transcriptomic datasets.
Part this work is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy via the German Federation of Industrial Research Associations (AiF) and the Industry Association for Nutrition Industries (FEI) in project number AiF 17463 N.
Availability of data and materials
The transcriptomic raw datasets generated and analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to unavailability of suitable depositories for raw transcriptomic data, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. All other data are included in the manuscript or its supplementary files.
DR and TAK conducted the experiments, DR wrote the draft of the manuscript including illustrations and performed bioinformatic analyses, CAL helped with data analysis and conducted and supervised respective analyses, RFV was project leader, supervisor and conducted final manuscript writing and editing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they do not have any competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- De Man JC, Rogosa M, Sharpe ME. A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. J Appl Bacteriol. 1960;23(1):130–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kurtzman CP, Rogers R, Hesseltine CW. Microbiological spoilage of mayonnaise and salad dressings. Appl Microbiol. 1971;21(5):870–4.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Manios SG, Lambert RJW, Skandamis PN. A generic model for spoilage of acidic emulsified foods: combining physicochemical data, diversity and levels of specific spoilage organisms. Int J Food Microbiol. 2014;170(0):1–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sanders JW, Oomes SJCM, Membré JM, Wegkamp A, Wels M. Biodiversity of spoilage lactobacilli: phenotypic characterisation. Food Microbiol 2015;45, Part A:34–44.Google Scholar
- Johnsson T, Nikkila P, Toivonen L, Rosenqvist H, Laakso S. Cellular fatty acid profiles of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains in relation to the oleic acid content of the cultivation medium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995;61(12):4497–9.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Partanen L, Marttinen N, Alatossava T. Fats and fatty acids as growth factors for Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2001;24(4):500–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tan WS, Budinich MF, Ward R, Broadbent JR, Steele JL. Optimal growth of Lactobacillus casei in a cheddar cheese ripening model system requires exogenous fatty acids1. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95(4):1680–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Terraf MCL, Juárez Tomás MS, Nader-Macías MEF, Silva C. Screening of biofilm formation by beneficial vaginal lactobacilli and influence of culture media components. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113(6):1517–29.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Corcoran BM, Stanton C, Fitzgerald GF, Ross RP. Growth of probiotic lactobacilli in the presence of oleic acid enhances subsequent survival in gastric juice. Microbiology. 2007;153(1):291–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Broadbent JR, Oberg TS, Hughes JE, Ward RE, Brighton C, Welker DL, Steele JL. Influence of polysorbate 80 and cyclopropane fatty acid synthase activity on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 at low pH. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;41(3):545–53.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li J-Y, Zhang L-W, Du M, Han X, Yi H-X, Guo C-F, Zhang Y-C, Luo X, Zhang Y-H, Shan Y-J, et al. Effect of tween series on growth and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid production of Lactobacillus acidophilus F0221 in the presence of bile salts. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(12):9138–54.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hansen M-LRW, Petersen MA, Risbo J, Hümmer M, Clausen A. Implications of modifying membrane fatty acid composition on membrane oxidation, integrity, and storage viability of freeze-dried probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. Biotechnol Prog. 2015;31(3):799–807.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Naseri A, Bowman JP, Wilson R, Nilsson RE, Britz ML. Impact of lactose starvation on the physiology of Lactobacillus casei GCRL163 in the presence or absence of tween 80. J Proteome Res. 2013;12(11):5313–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weeks G, Wakil SJ. Studies on the control of fatty acid metabolism: II. The inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum by exogenous fatty acid. J Biol Chem. 1970;245(8):1913–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Henderson TO, McNeill JJ. The control of fatty acid synthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1966;25(6):662–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kafka TA, Reitermayer D, Lenz CA, Vogel RF. High hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum cells in (O/W)-emulsions is independent from cell surface hydrophobicity and lipid phase parameters. High Pressure Res. 2017;37(3):430–48.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abe F. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microbial cell membranes: structural and functional perspectives. In: Akasaka K, Matsuki H, editors. High Pressure Bioscience: Basic Concepts, Applications and Frontiers. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 371–81.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pagan R, Mackey B. Relationship between membrane damage and cell death in pressure-treated Escherichia coli cells: differences between exponential- and stationary-phase cells and variation among strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66(7):2829–34.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ulmer HM, Herberhold H, Fahsel S, Ganzle MG, Winter R, Vogel RF. Effects of pressure-induced membrane phase transitions on inactivation of HorA, an ATP-dependent multidrug resistance transporter, in Lactobacillus plantarum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68(3):1088–95.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Casadei MA, Mañas P, Niven G, Needs E, Mackey BM. Role of membrane fluidity in pressure resistance of Escherichia coli NCTC 8164. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68(12):5965–72.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yano Y, Nakayama A, Ishihara K, Saito H. Adaptive changes in membrane lipids of barophilic bacteria in response to changes in growth pressure. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64(2):479–85.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Stolz P, Böcker G, Hammes WP, Vogel RF. Utilization of electron acceptors by lactobacilli isolated from sourdough. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1995;201(1):91–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kafka TA, Geissler AJ, Vogel RF. Multiple genome sequences of Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Genome Announcements. 2017;5(29):e00654-00617.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tjaden B. De novo assembly of bacterial transcriptomes from RNA-seq data. Genome Biol. 2015;16(1):1–10.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- McClure R, Balasubramanian D, Sun Y, Bobrovskyy M, Sumby P, Genco CA, Vanderpool CK, Tjaden B. Computational analysis of bacterial RNA-Seq data. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41(14):e140.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lenz CA, Reineke K, Knorr D, Vogel RF. High pressure thermal inactivation of Clostridium botulinum type E endospores – kinetic modeling and mechanistic insights. Front Microbiol. 2015;6(652).Google Scholar
- Lenz CA, Vogel RF. Effect of sporulation medium and its divalent cation content on the heat and high pressure resistance of Clostridium botulinum type E spores. Food Microbiol. 2014;44:156–67.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cebrián G, Arroyo C, Mañas P, Condón S. Bacterial maximum non-inhibitory and minimum inhibitory concentrations of different water activity depressing solutes. Int J Food Microbiol. 2014;188:67–74.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klotz B, Mañas P, Mackey BM. The relationship between membrane damage, release of protein and loss of viability in Escherichia coli exposed to high hydrostatic pressure. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;137(2–3):214–20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arsène-Ploetze F, Nicoloff H, Kammerer B, Martinussen J, Bringel F. Uracil salvage pathway in lactobacillus plantarum: transcription and genetic studies. J Bacteriol. 2006;188(13):4777–86.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bouia A, Bringel F, Frey L, Belarbi A, Guyonvarch A, Kammerer B, Hubert J-C. Cloning and structure of the pyrE gene of Lactobacillusplantarum CCM 1904. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1990;69(3):233–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nicoloff H, Elagöz A, Arsène-Ploetze F, Kammerer B, Martinussen J, Bringel F. Repression of the pyr operon in lactobacillus plantarum prevents its ability to grow at low carbon dioxide levels. J Bacteriol. 2005;187(6):2093–104.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Thoman CJ. Ionophoric properties of Polysorbate 80. J Pharm Sci. 1986;75(10):983–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Endo Y, Kamisada S, Fujimoto K, Saito T. Trans fatty acids promote the growth of some Lactobacillus strains. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2006;52(1):29–35.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- NA JACQUES, HARDY L, KW KNOX, AJ WICKEN. Effect of tween 80 on the morphology and physiology of Lactobacillus salivarius strain IV CL-37 grown in a chemostat under glucose limitation. Microbiology. 1980;119(1):195–201.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Remus DM, van Kranenburg R, van Swam II, Taverne N, Bongers RS, Wels M, Wells JM, Bron PA, Kleerebezem M. Impact of 4 lactobacillus plantarum capsular polysaccharide clusters on surface glycan composition and host cell signaling. Microb Cell Factories. 2012;11(1):149.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smith DD, Norton SJ. S-Adenosylmethionine, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase, and the production of lactobacillic acid in Lactobacillus plantarum. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1980;205(2):564–70.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Polacheck JW, Tropp BE, Law JH, McCloskey JA. Biosynthesis of cyclopropane compounds: VIII. The conversion of oleate to dihydrosterculate. J Biol Chem. 1966;241(14):3362–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kishino S, Takeuchi M, Park S-B, Hirata A, Kitamura N, Kunisawa J, Kiyono H, Iwamoto R, Isobe Y, Arita M, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2013;110(44):17808–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kankaanpää PE, Salminen SJ, Isolauri E, Lee YK. The influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on probiotic growth and adhesion. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;194(2):149–53.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ulmer HM, Ganzle MG, Vogel RF. Effects of high pressure on survival and metabolic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1.460. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66(9):3966–73.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Charoenwong D, Andrews S, Mackey B. Role of rpoS in the development of cell envelope resilience and pressure resistance in stationary-phase Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77(15):5220–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Arroyo G, Sanz PD, Préstamo G. Response to high-pressure, low-temperature treatment in vegetables: determination of survival rates of microbial populations using flow cytometry and detection of peroxidase activity using confocal microscopy. J Appl Microbiol. 1999;86(3):544–556.Google Scholar
- Ananta E, Knorr D. Comparison of inactivation pathways of thermal or high pressure inactivated Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 by flow cytometry analysis. Food Microbiol. 2009;26(5):542–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smelt JPPM, Rijke AGF, Hayhurst A. Possible mechanism of high pressure inactivation of microorganisms. High Pressure Res. 1994;12(4–6):199–203.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vázquez-Laslop N, Lee H, Hu R, Neyfakh AA. Molecular sieve mechanism of selective release of cytoplasmic proteins by osmotically shocked Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183(8):2399–404.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Govers SK, Dutré P, Aertsen A. In vivo disassembly and reassembly of protein aggregates in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2014;196(13):2325–32.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Grogan DW, Cronan JE. Cyclopropane ring formation in membrane lipids of bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997;61(4):429–41.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Broadbent JR, Larsen RL, Deibel V, Steele JL. Physiological and transcriptional response of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 to acid stress. J Bacteriol. 2010;192(9):2445–58.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hamon E, Horvatovich P, Izquierdo E, Bringel F, Marchioni E, Aoudé-Werner D, Ennahar S. Comparative proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum for the identification of key proteins in bile tolerance. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:63.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Smittle RB, Gilliland SE, Speck ML, Walter WM. Relationship of cellular fatty acid composition to survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in liquid nitrogen. Appl Microbiol. 1974;27(4):738–43.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Murínová S, Dercová K. Response mechanisms of bacterial degraders to environmental contaminants on the level of cell walls and cytoplasmic membrane. Int J Microbiol. 2014;2014:873081.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chen YY, Gänzle MG. Influence of cyclopropane fatty acids on heat, high pressure, acid and oxidative resistance in Escherichia coli. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;222:16–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poger D, Mark AE. A ring to rule them all: the effect of cyclopropane fatty acids on the fluidity of lipid bilayers. J Phys Chem B. 2015;119(17):5487–95.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar