- Methodology article
- Open Access
Evaluation of infectious titer in a candidate HSV type 2 vaccine by a quantitative molecular approach
© Azizi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 4 September 2013
- Accepted: 4 December 2013
- Published: 6 December 2013
One of the critical tasks in analytical testing is to monitor and assign the infectivity or potency of viral based vaccines from process development to production of final clinical lots. In this study, a high throughput RT-qPCR based approach was developed to evaluate the infectious titre in a replication-defective HSV-2 candidate vaccine, called HSV529. This assay is a combination of viral propagation and quantitative RT-PCR which measures the amount of RNA in infected cells after incubation with test samples.
The relative infectious titre of HSV529 candidate vaccine was determined by a RT-qPCR method targeting HSV-2 gD2 gene. The data were analyzed using the parallel-line analysis as described in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. The stability of HSV529 test samples were also investigated in a concordance study between RT-qPCR infectivity assay and a classical plaque assays. A suitable correlation was determined between both assays using an identical sample set in both assays. The RT-qPCR infectivity assay was further characterized by evaluating the intermediate precision and accuracy. The coefficient of variation from the six independent assays was less than 10%. The accuracy of each of the assay was also evaluated in the range of 92.91% to 120.57%.
Our data demonstrate that the developed RT-qPCR infectivity assay is a rapid high throughput approach to quantify the infectious titer or potency of live attenuated or defective viral-based vaccines, an attribute which is associated with product quality.
- Infectious titre
- HSV type 2
The conventional in-vitro assays to measure the titer or potency of live viral-based vaccines are usually based on the infectivity of the vaccine virus in cell cultures (plaque assay or CCID50) [1–5]. In both methods, the experiment duration is long due to the time needed for virus replication producing the biological effect. In addition, there is a cell substrate limitation with the traditional methods, and only viruses that cause a detectable biological effect on infected cells can be evaluated.
The introduction of real time PCR technology for the quantitation of viral infectivity has significantly improved viral infectivity assays. This method is a combination of virus propagation and quantitative PCR (qPCR) or RT-qPCR. In a study by Ranheim et al.,  a RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect rotavirus vaccine (Rota Teq) infectivity within two days. In this assay, the confluent Vero cells in 96-well plates were inoculated with serial dilutions of test samples, a pentavalent reassortant rotavirus reference standard, and assay controls. After 24 hours, Vero cells were lysed and the lysates were measured by RT-qPCR to quantify viral replication. In another study, Schalk et al.,  developed a rapid assay for the measurement of infectivity-potency in MMR trivalent vaccines based on a qPCR infectivity assay. The assay was able to demonstrate the potency of mumps and measles viruses within a period of 2 days. Since rubella virus replicates slower than measles and mumps, the potency estimation for rubella virus was PCR-based assays as end-points since a plaque assay for measles and rubella virus usually takes 9 days . This period of time for detection of mumps virus in cell line is 6 days. A one week time reduction in the qPCR infectivity assay without loss of precision compared to a plaque assay and TCID50 was a major advantage of the assay.
Dr. Knipe’s group at Harvard Medical School constructed a candidate Herpes Virus vaccine through deletion of the UL5 and UL29 coding regions of HSV-2 virus . The resultant vaccine, HSV529, is being developed by Sanofi Pasteur and is currently under a human phase I clinical trial [8, 9]. The AV529-19 cell line is used for the propagation of HSV529. This cell line is a Vero-based cell line specifically engineered to express the HSV-1 UL5 and UL29 transgenes. With expression of the HSV-1 UL5 and UL29 genes, AV529-19 is able to support replication of HSV529 [8, 9]. Herein, we have developed a high throughput RT-qPCR-based approach for evaluation of the infectious titer of HSV529 candidate vaccine. The developed infectivity RT-qPCR based approach determines relative quantification to an appropriately constructed in-house reference control. The assay’s accuracy and intermediate precision was also investigated to ensure suitable performance of this analytical method. Furthermore, a concordance stability study between the developed method and a classical plaque assay was performed to investigate the correlation between both assays. The results obtained from both assays using the same identical sample set demonstrated a suitable linear correlation between both approaches. In summary, the developed RT-qPCR infectivity assay is a rapid method with high-throughput capacity that can be applied to quantify the infectious titer of HSV529 candidate vaccine. This approach could also be applied to other live or attenuated viral vaccines to quantify the infectious titer of product.
Specificity of HSV-2 various target genes and optimization of harvest time
Evaluate the infectivity of HSV529 test samples by targeting HSV-2 gD2 gene
A comparative stability study between RT-qPCR infectivity assay and a classical plaque assay
Infectious titre results obtained by RT-qPCR infectivity assay or plaque assay
7.50E + 06
7.28E + 06
4.35E + 06
3.35E + 06
2.43E + 06
7.36E + 06
5.55E + 06
4.52E + 06
4.43E + 06
2.70E + 06
3.06E + 06
1.14E + 06
2.14E + 06
1.30E + 06
3.78E + 05
3.23E + 06
3.40E + 06
2.80E + 06
1.55E + 06
Evaluation of intermediate precision and accuracy in the developed RT-qPCR infectivity assay
The intermediate precision and accuracy of the developed RT-qPCR infectivity assay is determined
(Mean from 30 assays)
1.50E + 07
1.41E + 07
1.63E + 07
1.45E + 07
1.70E + 07
1.54E + 07
1.31E + 07
There are several challenges with conventional in-vitro assays (plaque or CPE) to measure the titer of live attenuated or defective viral-based vaccines [4, 6]. The traditional assays are usually laborious and sometimes hard to interpret. The time due to-assay-completion and cell substrate limitations are also challenges with the conventional in-vitro assays. For instance, it takes nine days to measure the infectious titre in measles or rubella vaccines . Furthermore, traditional methods require virus neutralization for characterization of infectivity or potentially potency in multivalent viral vaccines. However, a PCR-infectivity based approach does not require virus neutralization, making it a more attractive alternative for multivalent viral vaccines. Although HSV529 candidate vaccine has not been faced with some of these challenges (the HSV-2 virus is able to form plaques in AV529-19 cells over 3 days and is not a multivalent vaccine), a RT-qPCR infectivity based-approach was developed to enhance the assay’s throughput (testing more samples in a shorter time).
During HSV-2 replication, the five viral genes expressed in the immediate-early (phase α), encode regulatory proteins [10, 11]. After the immediate-early step, early genes are activated (phase β), and these encode proteins required for replication of the viral genome. After genome replication in the early phase, the late step (phase γ) occurs, where HSV-2 structural proteins are expressed and the virus is formed [10, 11]. One of the critical features of the RT-qPCR infectivity assay was to determine the specificity of the assay targeting appropriate HSV-2 gene. Therefore, one gene (ICP27, TK, and gD2) from each of the replication phases was targeted. We were able to observe a linear relationship between the logarithm of the HSV529 concentration and the C T values by targeting the gD2 gene and not the ICP27 or TK genes. It has to be noted that during the late gD2 expression, the immediate-early and early proteins are also generated and the full form of the virus is completed. HSV-2 gD2 RNA accumulation starts to level off approximately 12 hours post-infection and remains relatively steady for up to 16 hour post-infection.
The developed assay is a combination of in-vitro HSV529 propagation in the suitable cell line for a short HSV-2 replication cycle followed by a RT-qPCR. The infectious titers of the test samples are estimated relative to an in-house reference control. This in-house reference control was titrated in the lab using conventional plaque assay and validated based on 30 independent assays accordance to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guideline . Therefore, the assay measures the relative infectious unit based on the in-house reference control unitage. Briefly, confluent AV529 cells in 96-well plates were inoculated with serial dilutions of HSV529 test samples and an HSV529 in-house control, to produce a standard curve followed by incubation for 16 hours. Thereafter, HSV529-19 cells were lysed, total RNA purified, DNAse treated, and RT-qPCR targeting HSV-2 gD2 gene was performed to quantitate HSV529 nucleic acid produced during replication. The relative infectious titre for each sample was determined using the parallel-line analysis as described in the European Pharmacopoeia 8.0 . The analysis by extrapolation is not an appropriate approach as several parameters including the similar conditions between the in-house reference control and test samples are not considered during analysis. In this study, the correlation between test samples and the in-house reference control was assessed using PLA software version 2.0. Before PLA analysis, all C T values for the in-house reference control and test samples were subjected to standard outlier analysis, with the limit that no more than one data point (one replicate out of the four replicates) per HSV529 dilution could be removed. Afterwards, each assay was analyzed by PLA software. The assay was considered valid if the regression, linearity, and parallelism were significant.
To investigate if RT-qPCR infectivity assay is a suitable method to evaluate the stability of HSV529 test samples, a concordance study was conducted between the RT-qPCR infectivity assay and a conventional infectivity plaque assay using identical test samples. While the results illustrated a suitable correlation (R2 ~0.91) between the qRT-PCR infectivity assay and the plaque assay, higher cost and complexity of RT-qPCR infectivity assay were two drawbacks of this method compare to a traditional method.
To evaluate the closeness of the analytically determined HSV529 infectious titre values, the accuracy of the method was evaluated in six independent assays by two analysts on different days. The accuracy was determined as the percentage of the infectious titre values obtained by RT-qPCR versus infectious titre values by a plaque assay. The accuracy was evaluated in the range of 92.91% to 120.57%, indicating a suitable accuracy for the assay. The intermediate precision of the assay was also evaluated to measure the variation of the obtained data. To evaluate this parameter, the assay was performed six times by two different operators over a time period of 2 months. The mean value of this run control was 16.53 log pfu/ml with a standard deviation of 0.091, resulting in a coefficient of variation of 9.19.
In this study, a RT-qPCR based approach was utilized to specifically detect and quantitate the HSV529 RNA after productive infection in AV529-19 cells. The results show that the developed RT-qPCR infectivity assay is a reproducible approach that can quantitate the HSV529 infectious titre before the plaque assay formation is visible on day 3. The described RT-qPCR infectivity approach might also be a suitable approach for determination of potency of test samples, however; further evaluation of sub-potent lots and/or assessing clinical data is required.
The infectious titre of an HSV529 (lot#10954) was determined through a plaque assay on AV529 cells by performing 30 independent plaque assays. This lot was determined as the HSV529 in-house reference control. Briefly, serial dilutions of the viral material was allowed to adsorb on the AV529 cell monolayers at 36°C ± 1°C, 5% ± 2% after which the volume of infection media was adjusted to a suitable volume to allow for incubation at 36°C ± 1°C, 5% ± 2% for 48 hours. After the 48 hour incubation step, the cell monolayers were fixed and stained with a crystal violet (Sigma) and methanol stain and the visible plaques were enumerated by eye and used to assign a titre in log10 pfu/ml. The assigned mean infectious titre from 30 independent assays was 1.41 × 107 pfu/ml.
Cell culture and infection
AV529-19 cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (Sigma) supplemented with 1% (v/v) Penicillin/Streptomycin (Sigma), 1% heat inactivated ultra-low IgG-FBS (Invitrogen), 1% L-glutamine (Sigma), and maintained in a 37°C incubator in 5% CO2. Prior to each assay, cells were plated one day in advance in 96-well tissue culture plates (Becton Dickinson) at a density of 4×104 cells per well in a volume of 200 μl. Next day, plates were visually inspected under a microscope to confirm the cell monolayer was 80-100% confluent. Serial dilutions of the HSV529 test samples as well as the HSV529 in-house reference control were prepared in culture media. The media from each well was removed, and 50 μl of each viral dilution was added to each well (four replicates were used for each dilution). Afterwards, 50 μl media was dispensed into each infected well for a total volume of 100 μl. Afterwards, 100 μl media was added to the uninfected and negative control wells. The plates were placed at 36 ± 1°C, 5% CO2 incubator for 16 hours.
Total RNA was isolated using total RNA purification 96-well kit (Norgen Biotek). The purified RNA was treated with TURBO DNA-free kit (Applied Biosystems) according to manufacture’s instruction.
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)
The RT-qPCR was performed by targeting the HSV-2 immediate early (ICP27), early (TK) and late (gD2) genes. For ICP27, the forward and reverse primers were 5′- GCC ACT CTC TTC CGA CAC -3′ and 5′- CAA GAA CAT CAC ACG GAA C-3′, respectively. For TK, the forward and reverse primers were 5′-TGG ATT ACG ATC AGT CGC C -3′ and 5′-ACA CCA CAC GAC AAC AAT GC-3′, respectively. For gD2, the forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCA GCG AGG ATA ACC TGG GA-3 and 5′-GGG AGA GCG TAC TTG CAG GA-3, respectively. The ICP27, TK, and gD2 primers have been previously described and tested in other studies. [14–16]. All the primers were purchased from Life Biotechnologies. One step RT-qPCR was performed using SYBR Green PCR master mix (Applied Biosystems), MultiScribe Reverse Transcriptase (50 U/μl, Applied Biosystems), RNase Inhibitor (20 U/μl, Applied Biosystems), 1 pmol of each forward and reverse primer, and 2 μl isolated RNA in a total volume of 25 μl. The RT-qPCR program consisted of 30 min reverse transcription reaction at 48°C, 10 min denaturation at 95°C, 40 cycles of 15 seconds denaturation at 95°C, 1 min annealing at 60°C and extension at 95°C for 15 seconds. The assay was performed using the Mastercycler® ep realplex (Eppendorf).
The data from the qRT-PCR infectivity assay were analyzed by the extrapolation statistical approach using Eppendorf Mastercycler Software (Applied Biosystems) or Parallel-Line Analysis (PLA) using the PLA software version 2.0.
We acknowledge Dr. Robert Ryall for project support. We would like to thank Drs. Bryan McNeil, Carine Logvinoff, Azeem Ansari, and Aleksandra Kolenc-Saban for technical advice. We would also like to thank Daniel Jeon, Francisca Aidoo, and Helen Lima for technical assistance. We thank Dr. Robert A. Lersch at the legal department of Sanofi Pasteur for reviewing the manuscript.
- Minagawa T, Sakuma T, Kuwajima S, Yamamoto TK, Iida H: Characterization of measles viruses in establishment of persistent infections in human lymphoid cell line. J Gen Virol. 1976, 33 (3): 361-379. 10.1099/0022-1317-33-3-361.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wadey CN, Faragher JT: Australian infectious bronchitis viruses: plaque formation and assay methods. Res Vet Sci. 1981, 30 (1): 66-69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beales LP, Wood DJ, Minor PD, Saldanha JA: A novel cytopathic microtitre plate assay for hepatitis A virus and anti-hepatitis A neutralizing antibodies. J Virol Methods. 1996, 59 (1–2): 147-154.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schalk JA, de Vries CG, Jongen PM: Potency estimation of measles, mumps and rubella trivalent vaccines with quantitative PCR infectivity assay. Biologicals. 2005, 33 (2): 71-79. 10.1016/j.biologicals.2005.01.001.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sood DK, Aggarwal RK, Kumar S, Sokhey J: A rapid test for measuring the infectivity of Yellow Fever vaccine. Vaccine. 1995, 13 (5): 427-428. 10.1016/0264-410X(94)00035-L.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ranheim T, Mathis PK, Joelsson DB, et al: Development and application of a quantitative RT-PCR potency assay for a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq). J Virol Methods. 2006, 131 (2): 193-201. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.08.013.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Da CX, Kramer MF, Zhu J, Brockman MA, Knipe DM: Construction, phenotypic analysis, and immunogenicity of a UL5/UL29 double deletion mutant of herpes simplex virus 2. J Virol. 2000, 74 (17): 7963-7971. 10.1128/JVI.74.17.7963-7971.2000.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Delagrave S, Hernandez H, Zhou C, et al: Immunogenicity and efficacy of intramuscular replication-defective and subunit vaccines against herpes simplex virus type 2 in the mouse genital model. PLoS One. 2012, 7 (10): e46714-10.1371/journal.pone.0046714.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mundle ST, Hernandez H, Hamberger J, et al: High-purity preparation of HSV-2 vaccine candidate ACAM529 is immunogenic and efficacious in vivo. PLoS One. 2013, 8 (2): e57224-10.1371/journal.pone.0057224.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smiley JR: Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff protein: immune evasion mediated by a viral RNase?. J Virol. 2004, 78 (3): 1063-1068. 10.1128/JVI.78.3.1063-1068.2004.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Manservigi R, Argnani R, Marconi P: HSV recombinant vectors for gene therapy. Open Virol J. 2010, 4: 123-156.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Validation of Analytical Procedures, the International Conference on Harmonisation. 2005Google Scholar
- Chapter 5.3, Statistical analysis of results of biological assays and tests, European Pharmacopoeia. 2013, 8Google Scholar
- Da Costa X, Jones CA, Knipe DM: Immunization against genital herpes with a vaccine virus that has defects in productive and latent infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999, 96 (12): 6994-6998. 10.1073/pnas.96.12.6994.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haynes JR, Arrington J, Dong L, Braun RP, Payne LG: Potent protective cellular immune responses generated by a DNA vaccine encoding HSV-2 ICP27 and the E. coli heat labile enterotoxin. Vaccine. 2006, 24 (23): 5016-5026. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03.046.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hoshino Y, Dalai SK, Wang K, et al: Comparative efficacy and immunogenicity of replication-defective, recombinant glycoprotein, and DNA vaccines for herpes simplex virus 2 infections in mice and guinea pigs. J Virol. 2005, 79 (1): 410-418. 10.1128/JVI.79.1.410-418.2005.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.